Rotator Cuff Injuries: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Rotator cuff injuries are a common cause of shoulder pain and dysfunction, affecting a significant number of people, especially athletes and those involved in repetitive overhead activities. This blog will explore the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for rotator cuff injuries, offering valuable insights for individuals seeking relief and rehabilitation.

What is the Rotator Cuff?

The rotator cuff is a group of four muscles and their tendons that stabilise the shoulder joint. These muscles – the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis – work together to enable a wide range of shoulder movements.

Causes of Rotator Cuff Injuries

Rotator cuff injuries can occur due to a variety of reasons, including:

  • Acute Injuries: Sudden trauma, such as falling on an outstretched arm or lifting something heavy.
  • Repetitive Strain: Overuse from repetitive overhead activities like painting, swimming, or playing tennis.
  • Degenerative Changes: Age-related wear and tear, leading to tendon degeneration and increased risk of tears (Smith et al., 2020).

Symptoms of Rotator Cuff Injuries

Common symptoms of rotator cuff injuries include:

  • Pain: Often felt in the shoulder and upper arm, particularly during overhead movements or at night.
  • Weakness: Difficulty lifting the arm or performing certain movements.
  • Limited Range of Motion: Stiffness and decreased ability to move the shoulder (Johnson et al., 2021).

Diagnosing Rotator Cuff Injuries

Diagnosis typically involves a physical examination, during which a physiotherapist will assess the range of motion, strength, and tenderness in the shoulder. Imaging tests such as X-rays, ultrasound, or MRI may be used to confirm the diagnosis and determine the extent of the injury (Australian Physiotherapy Association, 2022).

Treatment Options

Conservative Treatments

Most rotator cuff injuries can be managed with conservative treatments, including:

  • Rest and Activity Modification: Avoiding activities that exacerbate the pain.
  • Physiotherapy: Targeted exercises to strengthen the shoulder muscles, improve flexibility, and restore function.
  • Medications: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to reduce pain and inflammation.
  • Injections: Corticosteroid injections to provide temporary pain relief (Australian Physiotherapy Association, 2022).

Surgical Treatments

In severe cases where conservative treatments fail, surgical options may be considered:

  • Arthroscopic Surgery: Minimally invasive surgery to repair torn tendons.
  • Open Surgery: In more complex cases, open surgery may be necessary to repair or reattach tendons (Brown et al., 2019).

Home Exercises and Tips

In addition to professional treatment, performing exercises at home can aid recovery. Here are some recommended exercises:

  • Pendulum Exercises: Lean forward and let your arm hang down, gently swinging it in small circles.
  • External Rotation with Resistance Bands: Attach a resistance band to a stable surface and hold the other end with your injured arm, keeping your elbow at a 90-degree angle. Rotate your arm outward, keeping your elbow close to your body.
  • Internal Rotation with Resistance Bands: Similar to the external rotation exercise, but rotate your arm inward (Healthline, 2023).

Preventing Rotator Cuff Injuries

To reduce the risk of rotator cuff injuries, consider the following tips:

  • Warm Up Properly: Always warm up before engaging in physical activities.
  • Strengthen Shoulder Muscles: Regularly perform exercises to strengthen the rotator cuff and surrounding muscles.
  • Use Proper Technique: Ensure correct technique during activities and exercises to avoid unnecessary strain on the shoulder (Smith et al., 2020).


Understanding the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for rotator cuff injuries is crucial for effective management and recovery. If you’re experiencing shoulder pain or suspect a rotator cuff injury, don’t hesitate to seek professional help. Our experienced physiotherapists at Trilogy Physiotherapy in Sinnamon Park, Brisbane, are here to provide personalised care and guide you on your path to recovery. Click here to book now with one of our therapists!


  • Australian Physiotherapy Association. (2022). Rotator Cuff Injuries. Retrieved from APA
  • Brown, J. T., et al. (2019). Management of Rotator Cuff Tears. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, 28(3), 459-472.
  • Healthline. (2023). Rotator Cuff Exercises. Retrieved from Healthline
  • Johnson, M. S., et al. (2021). Symptoms and Diagnosis of Rotator Cuff Injuries. Orthopedic Reviews, 13(2), 87-93.
  • Smith, R. L., et al. (2020). Risk Factors and Prevention of Rotator Cuff Injuries. Sports Medicine, 50(4), 619-632.
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